Christian A. Drevon,Sidsel Graff-Iversen,Knut Inge Klepp,Inger K Nilsen,Sigmund B. Strømme,Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen,Anne J Søgaard,Serena Tonstad,Henriette Øien,Sigmund Aasen,
(2000). Vekt - helse. 170 s.
Christian A Drevon,S. Graff-Iversen,Knut Inge Klepp,I.K. Nilsen,Sigmund B. Strømme,J Sundgot-Borgen,Anne Johanne Søgaard,Serena Tonstad,H. Øien,Steinar Aasen,
(2000). Vekt - Helse. 170 s.
Objective: To measure the impact of the personality traits of Negative Affectivity and General Self-Efficacy measured during pregnancy to predict breastfeeding status at 4-months postpartum, adjusting for cesarean section, premature birth, parity, maternal age, and years of maternal education. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The national sample of 29,581 mothers completed assessment of Negative Affectivity and General Self-Efficacy at gestation weeks 17 and 30 and completed a self-report questionnaire at 6-months postpartum capturing detailed information about nutrition from birth thru 6 months. Outcome Measures: Mothers were classified with a cut-off at 4 months in the groups full breastfeeding, mixed breastfeeding, and bottle feeding. Results: We found that each interval of high Negative Affectivity increased the odds ratio of mixed breastfeeding (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.27-1.51) and bottle feeding (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.39-1.76), compared to full breastfeeding. Each interval of high General Self-Efficacy decreased the odds ratio of bottle feeding at 4 months (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96) but not of mixed breastfeeding (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.95-1.04), compared to full breastfeeding. Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that Negative Affectivity and General Self-Efficacy are important antenatal predictors of breastfeeding 4 months postpartum. Adequately addressing the concerns and difficulties of mothers high in Negative Affectivity and low in General Self-Efficacy during prenatal and antenatal care could help prevent difficulties to sustain full breastfeeding.
Purpose Investigating tracking of selected health behaviours from adolescence into adulthood. Sample Data were collected by questionnaires in a longitudinal study from age 15 to 33 in Oslo, Norway, including 443 (53% women) ethnic Norwegians participating in 1981 (baseline), 1991 and in 1999. Measures At baseline and in 1991 sugar and fruit/vegetable intake was computed as scores, grouped into three; low, medium and high, while in 1999 this intake was computed as grams/day. Physical activity (PA) at baseline and in 1991 was grouped as exercising < weekly, once weekly, and ≥ twice weekly, while the dependent PA-variable was proportion exercising ≥ twice weekly. Smoking was grouped as never, occasionally and weekly at baseline and daily smoking versus no smoking was reported for 1991 and 1999. Results A consistent tracking pattern was seen from 1981 (age 15) to 1991 (age 25). Comparing highest versus lowest sugar-intake tertile at baseline, the scores in 1991 were (mean) 5.0 versus 4.0 (p<0.001) for gender combined. For fruit/vegetables the scores within highest versus lowest baseline tertile were 11.4 and 10.3 (p=0.008). The proportion who exercised ≥ twice weekly in 1991 among the most versus the least frequent exercisers at baseline, were 53.1% and 32.6%, (p=0.002), and the proportion smokers was 78.0% among baseline smokers compared to 32.7% (p<0.001) among never-smokers. A similar pattern emerged within the adult age-range (25 � 33 years). However, comparing 1981 and 1999, the prediction power of 1981-data for behaviour in 1999 was weaker. Conclusions Results from this study indicate a substantial degree of tracking of health-related behaviour from adolescence into adulthood.
Breakfast and lunch consumption decreased significantly from age 18 to 21 and the same trend was observed for dinner. However, at age 21 the mean meal frequencies were approximately 5 and 6 days per week for breakfast/lunch and dinner respectively. Breakfast habits were the most stable, 63% reported the same frequencies at both times. The group planning for the shortest education had a lower level of breakfast consumption at age 18 and reported the largest decrease (from 5.3 to 4.4 times per week). Similar results were seen in the group becoming workers rather than students. Those remaining at home with their parents, decreased their breakfast consumption, while those who moved out did not. Lunch was the least stable meal, 55% reported the same frequencies at both times. The group planning for the longest education had a significant decrease in lunch consumption, but their starting level was the highest. Boys had a significant decrease in dinner consumption, but still ate dinner more often than the girls at age 21. A similar result was found for those planning the longest education. Those taking on part-time jobs next to their studies had the largest decrease in dinner consumption.
Longitudinal Health Behavior Study. Reported meal frequencies by the adolescents at the ages 14-16, 18, 19 and 21, and parental educational level reported by their parents were used in the analyses. Dividing the cohort into three categories at the age of 14, tracking was used to determine the stability of the meal frequencies. All mean meal frequencies decreased significantly during adolescence. However, at age 21 the mean frequencies of breakfast and lunch were still approximately 5 times per week and for dinner it was 6 times per week. At all ages the males reported eating dinner more often than did the females. Initial gender differences in frequency of breakfast and lunch consumption disappeared as the males decreased their levels to that of the females. Tracking analyses showed that breakfast habits were especially stable, but also lunch and dinner habits showed fair degree of tracking. At all ages the children of parents with higher education reported higher frequencies of breakfast consumption. Other associations between meals and parental education were less consistent. Meal frequencies appeared fairly stable during adolescence and into early adulthood. Breakfast consumption appeared related to the educational levels of parents indicating social inequality.
The study investigated the consumption frequencies of fruit and vegetables among adolescents and their parents according to the length of the parents' education. In 1990 a representative sample of 1195 Norwegian 13-year olds and their parents were invited to participate in a longitudinal study. Data collected at the ages 14-16, 18, 19 and 21 of the adolescents were included in the current analyses. Consumption frequencies of fruit and vegetables (times per week), and length of parents' education was assessed. ANOVA was used to analyse the data cross-sectionally, while GLM repeated measures was used to compute time trends and total means from age 14 through 21. In 1996 mothers with longer education reported higher consumption frequencies of fruit, while the fathers reported higher consumption frequencies of both fruit and vegetables, compared to those with shorter education. The adolescents' consumption frequencies of fruit and vegetables decreased as age increased. Total mean consumption frequencies (age 14 to 21) showed that adolescents of parents with longer education reported higher consumption frequencies of both fruit and vegetables. There was no interaction of time and educational level. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents and their parents appeared related to the parents' educational level.