Hopp til innhold

Valgte elementer er lagt i handlekurven

Gå til handlekurv
Uteluft - luftkvalitetskriterier

Referanser for metaller i uteluft

  1. Krewski D, Yokel RA, Nieboer E, Borchelt D, Cohen J, Harry J et al. Human health risk assessment for aluminium, aluminium oxide, and aluminium hydroxide. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 2007; 10 Suppl 1: 1-­269.
  2. Ovrevik J, Myran T, Refsnes M, Lag M, Becher R, Hetland RB et al. Mineral particles of varying composition induce differential chemokine  release from epithelial lung cells: importance of physico­chemical characteristics. Ann Occup Hyg 2005; 49: 219­-31.
  3. Cassee FR, Fokkens PHB, Leseman D, HJTh B, Boere AJF. Respiratory allergy and inflammation due to ambient particles (RAIAP) collection of particulate matter samples from 5 European sites. Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM; 2003, rapport RIVM rapport 863001001.
  4. Bloemen H.J.T., Gerlofs­-Nijland M.E., Janssen N.A.H., Sandstrom T., Bree L.van, Cassee FR. Chemical characterization and source apportionment  estimates  of  particulate matter collected within the framework of EU project HEPMEAP. 2005, rapport RIVM rapport 863001002/2005.
  5. Verstraeten SV, Aimo L, Oteiza PI. Aluminium and lead: molecular mechanisms of brain toxicity. Arch Toxicol 2008; 789-­802.
  6. Thyssen JP, Menne T. Metal Allergy­A Review on Exposures, Penetration, Genetics, Prevalence, and Clinical Implications. Chem Res Toxicol 2010; 23: 309-­18.
  7. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological Profile for Aluminium. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2007.
  8. WHO. Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, Second Edition. Copenhagen: World Health Organization; 2000, rapport 91.
  9. Jarup L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 2003; 68: 167­-82.
  10. Mandal BK, Suzuki KT. Arsenic round the world: a review. Talanta 2002; 58: 201-­35.
  11. WHO. Air Quality Guidelines for Europe Second Edition. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2001.
  12. Olsen V, Morland J. [Arsenic poisoning]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2004; 124: 2750-­3.
  13. Aranyi C, O’Shea WJ, Sherwood RL, Graham JA, Miller FJ. Effects of toluene inhalation on pulmonary host defenses of mice. Toxicol Lett 1985; 25: 103-­10.
  14. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological profile of Arsenic. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2007.
  15. European Parliament,Council. Directive 2004/107/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 15 December 2004 relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. 2004.
  16. Miljøverndepartementet. Forskrift om begrensning av forurensning (forurensningsforskriften) FOR­-2004-­06-­01-31: sist endret FOR­-2012­-11-­16-­1072 fra 2013-­01-­01. [Lovdata]. [oppdatert 1 Jun 2004; nedlastet 10 Apr 2013].
  17. Amundsen T, Naess IA, Hammerstrom J, Brudevold R, Bjerve KS. [Lead poisoning ­- an overview]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2002; 122: 1473-­6.
  18. Stromberg U, Lundh T, Skerfving S. Yearly measurements of blood lead in Swedish children since 1978: the declining trend continues in the petrol-­lead­-free period 1995­2007. Environ Res 2008; 107: 332-­5.
  19. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological profile for Lead. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2007.
  20. Chen LC, Lippmann M. Effects of Metals within Ambient Air Particulate Matter (PM) on Human Health. Inhal Toxicol 2008;  1­-31.
  21. European Parliament,Council. Directive 2008/50/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe. 2008.
  22. Karlsson HL, Nilsson L, Moller L. Subway particles are more genotoxic than street particles and induce oxidative stress in cultured human lung cells. Chem Res Toxicol 2005; 18: 19­-23.
  23. Miret S, Simpson RJ, McKie AT. Physiology and molecular biology of dietary iron absorption. Annu Rev Nutr 2003; 23: 283-­301.
  24. Wesselius LJ, Smirnov IM, Nelson ME, O’Brien­ Ladner AR, Flowers CH, Skikne BS. Alveolar macrophages accumulate iron and ferritin after in vivo exposure to iron or tungsten dusts. J Lab Clin Med 1996; 127: 401-­9.
  25. Lay JC, Bennett WD, Ghio AJ, Bromberg PA, Costa DL, Kim CS et al. Cellular and biochemical response of the human lung after intrapulmonary instillation of ferric oxide particles. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1999; 20: 631-­42.
  26. Skotland T, Sontum PC, Oulie I. In vitro stability analyses as a model for metabolism of ferromagnetic particles (Clariscan (TM)), a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2002; 28: 323-­9.
  27. Ghio AJ, Piantadosi CA, Wang X, Dailey LA, Stonehuerner JD, Madden MC et al. Divalent metal transporter-­1 decreases metal­-related injury in the lung. American Journal of Physiology­-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 2005; 289: L460­-7.
  28. Wang  X,  Ghio AJ, Yang  F,  Dolan KG,  Garrick MD, Piantadosi CA. Iron uptake and Nramp2/ DMT1/DCT1 in human bronchial epithelial cells. American Journal of Physiology­-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 2002; 282: 987­-95.
  29. Brain JD, Heilig E, Donaghey TC, Knutson MD, Wessling-­Resnick M, Molina RM. Effects of iron status on transpulmonary transport and tissue distribution of Mn and Fe. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2006; 34: 330­-7.
  30. Lay JC, Zeman KL, Ghio AJ, Bennett WD. Effects of inhaled iron oxide particles on alveolar epithelial permeability in normal subjects. Inhal Toxicol 2001; 13: 1065-­78.
  31. Zhou H, Kobzik L. Effect of concentrated ambient particles on macrophage phagocytosis and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2007; 36: 460-­5.
  32. Soukup JM, Ghio AJ, Becker S. Soluble components of Utah Valley particulate pollution alter alveolar macrophage function in vivo and in vitro. Inhal Toxicol 2000; 12: 401­-14.
  33. Smith KR, Veranth JM, Hu AA, Lighty JAS, Aust AE. Interleukin-­8 levels in human lung epithelial cells are increased in response to coal fly ash and vary with the bioavailability of iron, as a function of particle size and source of coal. Chem Res Toxicol 2000; 13: 118­-25.
  34. Molinelli AR, Madden MC, McGee JK, Stonehuerner JG, Ghio AJ. Effect of metal removal on the toxicity of airborne particulate matter from the Utah Valley. Inhal Toxicol 2002; 14: 1069-­86.
  35. Frampton MW, Ghio AJ, Samet JM, Carson JL, Carter JD, Devlin RB. Effects of aqueous extracts of PM10 filters from the Utah Valley on human airway epithelial cells. American Journal of Physiology­ Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 1999; 277: 960­-7.
  36. Dye JA, Lehmann JR, McGee JK, Winsett DW, Ledbetter AD, Everitt JI et al. Acute pulmonary toxicity of particulate matter filter extracts in rats: coherence with epidemiologic studies in Utah Valley residents. Environ Health Perspect 2001; 109 Suppl 3: 395-­403.
  37. Karlsson HL, Holgersson A, Möller L. Mechanisms Related to the Genotoxicity of Particles in the Subway and from Other Sources. Chem Res Toxicol 2008; 21: 726­-31.
  38. Wilson MR, Lightbody JH, Donaldson K, Sales J, Stone V. Interactions between ultrafine particles and transition metals in vivo and in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002; 184: 172-­9.
  39. Garry S, Nesslany F, Aliouat E, Haguenoer JM, Marzin D. Hematite (Fe2O3) acts by oxydative stress and potentiates benzo[a]pyrene genotoxicity. Mutat Res 2004; 563: 117­-29.
  40. Gosset P, Garton G, Casset A, Fleurisse L, Hannothiaux MH, Creusy C et al. Benzo (a) pyrene-­coated onto Fe2O3 particles-­induced apoptotic events in the lungs of Sprague-­Dawley rats. Toxicol Lett 2003; 143: 223­-32.
  41. Deng Z, Dailey LA, Soukup J, Stonehuerner J, Richards JD, Callaghan KD et al. Zinc transport by respiratory epithelial cells and interaction with iron homeostasis. Biometals 2009; 22: 803-­15.
  42. Dai J, Gilks B, Price K, Churg A. Mineral dusts directly induce epithelial and interstitial fibrogenic mediators and matrix components in the airway wall. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 158: 1907-­13.
  43. Muggenburg BA, Benson JM, Barr EB, Kubatko J, Tilley LP. Short-­term inhalation of particulate transition metals has little effect on the electrocardiograms of dogs having preexisting cardiac abnormalities. Inhal Toxicol 2003; 15: 357-­71.
  44. Zhu MT, Feng WY, Wang B, Wang TC, Gu YQ, Wang M et al. Comparative study of pulmonary responses to nano- ­and submicron-­sized ferric oxide in rats. Toxicology 2008; 247: 102-­11.
  45. Weinberg ED. Association of iron with respiratory tract neoplasia. J Trace Elem Exp Med 1993; 6: 117­-23.
  46. Gurzau ES, Neagu C, Gurzau AE. Essential metals - ­case study on iron. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2003; 56: 190-­200.
  47. Bourgkard E, Wild P, Courcot B, Diss M, Ettlinger J, Goutet P et al. Lung cancer mortality and iron oxide exposure in a French steel­-producing factory. Occup Environ Med 2009; 66: 175-­81.
  48. Stokinger HE. A review of world literature finds iron oides. Am Ind Hyg Assoc 1984; 45:  127-­33.
  49. Hunnes EG. Luftovervåking i Rana. Resultatrapportering for 1. halvår 2006. Molab as; 2006.
  50. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). Scientific Opinion Cadmium in Food, Scientific opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain. 2009,  rapport EFSA-­Q-­2007­-138.
  51. Oberdorster G. Pulmonary deposition, clearance and effects of inhaled soluble and insoluble cadmium compounds. IARC Sci Publ 1992;189-­204.
  52. Nemery B. Metal toxicity and the respiratory tract. Eur Respir J 1990; 3: 202-­19.
  53. IARC. Berylium, Cadmium. mercury and Exposures in the Glass Manufacturing Industry. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum 1993; 58: 1-­444.
  54. Se ref. 16.
  55. Stern BR, Solioz M, Krewski D, Aggett P, Aw TC, Baker S et al. Copper and human health: biochemistry, genetics, and strategies  for modeling dose-­response relationships. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 2007; 10: 157­-222.
  56. Gaetke LM, Chow CK. Copper toxicity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant nutrients. Toxicology 2003; 189: 147­-63.
  57. Sanders PG, Xu N, Dalka TM, Maricq MM. Airborne brake wear debris: size distributions, composition, and a comparison of dynamometer and vehicle tests. Environ Sci Technol 2003; 37: 4060­-9.
  58. Lough GC, Schauer JJ, Park JS, Shafer MM, Deminter JT, Weinstein JP. Emissions of metals associated with motor vehicle roadways. Environ Sci Technol 2005; 39: 826-­36.
  59. Gottipolu RR, Landa ER, Schladweiler MC, McGee JK, Ledbetter AD, Richards JH et al. Cardiopulmonary responses of intratracheally instilled tire particles and constituent metal components. Inhal Toxicol 2008; 20:  473-84.
  60. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological Profile for Copper. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2004.
  61. Georgopoulos PG, Wang SW, Georgopoulos IG, Yonone-­Lioy MJ, Lioy PJ. Assessment of human exposure to copper: A case study using the NHEXAS database. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2006; 16: 397-­409.
  62. WHO. Copper in Drinking­-water: background document of WHO Guidelines for Drinking­-water Quality. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004, rapport WHO/WSH/03.04.88.
  63. Drummond JG, Aranyi C, Schiff LJ. Comparative study of various methods used for determining health effects of inhaled sulfates. Environ Res 1986; 41: 514-­28.
  64. Hirano S, Ebihara H, Sakai S, Kodama N, Suzuki  KT. Pulmonary clearance and toxicity of intratracheally instilled cupric oxide in rats. Arch Toxicol 1993; 67: 312-­7.
  65. Karlsson HL, Cronholm P, Gustafsson J, Möller L. Copper oxide nanoparticles are highly toxic: a comparison between metal oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes. Chem Res Toxicol 2008; 21: 1726­-32.
  66. Karlsson HL, Gustafsson J, Cronholm P, Möller L. Size-­dependent toxicity of metal oxide particles - A comparison between nano­ and micrometer size. Toxicol Lett 2009; 188: 112­-8.
  67. Askergren A, Mellgren M. Changes in the nasal mucosa after exposure to copper salt dust. Scand J Work Environ Health 1979; 1: 45­-9.
  68. Suciu L, Prodan L, Lazar V, Ilea E, Cocirla A, Olinici L et al. Research on copper poisoning. Med Lavoro 1981; 3: 190­-7.
  69. Hackel H, Miller K, Elsner P, Burg G. Unusual combined sensitization to palladium and other metals. Contact Dermatitis 1991; 24: 131­-2.
  70. Zhitkovich A. Importance of Chromium­ DNA Adducts in Mutagenicity and Toxicity of Chromium (VI). Chem Res Toxicol 2005; 18: 3-­11.
  71. Galanis A, Karapetsas A, Sandaltzopoulos R. Metal­-induced carcinogenesis, oxidative stress and hypoxia signalling. Mutat Res 2009; 674: 31­-5.
  72. Salnikow K, Zhitkovich A. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: nickel, arsenic and chromium. Chem Res Toxicol 2008; 21: 28­-44.
  73. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Draft Toxicological profile for Chromium. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.
  74. Antonini JM, Roberts JR. Chromium in stainless steel welding fume suppresses lung defense responses against bacterial infection in rats. J Immunotoxicol 2007; 4: 117-­27.
  75. Langård S. One hundred years of chromium and cancer: a review of epidemiological evidence and selected case reports. Am J Ind Med 1990; 17: 189-­215.
  76. Langård S, Andersen A, Ravnestad J. Incidence of cancer among ferrochromium and ferrosilicon workers: an extended observation period. Br J Ind Med 1990; 47: 14­-9.
  77. Costa M, Klein CB. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans. Crit Rev Toxicol 2006; 36: 155­-63.
  78. Ishikawa Y, Nakagawa K, Satoh Y, Kitagawa T, Sugano H, Hirano T et al. “Hot spots” of chromium accumulation at bifurcations of chromate workers’ bronchi. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 2342-­6.
  79. Clarkson TW, Magos L. The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol 2006; 36: 609-62.
  80. Fitzgerald WF, Clarkson TW. Mercury and monomethylmercury: present and future concerns. Environ Health Perspect 1991; 96: 159­-66.
  81. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological Profile for Mercury (Update). Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1999.
  82. Miljøstatus.no/ (Kvikksølv) - Miljøinformasjon fra offentlige myndigheter
  83. Roels H, Abdeladim S, Ceulemans E, Lauwerys R. Relationships between the concentrations of mercury in air and in blood or urine in workers exposed to mercury vapour. Ann Occup Hyg 1987; 31: 135­-45.
  84. WHO. Health Risks of heavy metals  from long­range transboundary air pollution. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2007.
  85. Guzzi G, La Porta CA. Molecular mechanisms triggered by mercury. Toxicology 2008; 244: 1­-12.
  86. Fawer MF, de Ribaupierre Y, Guillemin MP, Berode. Measurement of hand tremor induced by industrial exposure to metallic mercury. Occup Environ Med 1983; 40: 204-­8.
  87. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological profile for Mangan. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.
  88. Roels HA, Ghyselen P, Buchet JP, Ceulemans E, Lauwerys RR. Assessment of the permissible exposure level to manganese in workers exposed to manganese dioxide dust. Br J Ind Med 1992; 49: 25-­34.
  89. Sivertsen B, Hagen LO. Overvåking av luft-­ og nedboerkvalitet i grenseområdene i Norge og Russland. Oktober 1991 -­ mars 1992. (Air quality monitoring in the border areas of Norway and Russia. Progress report October 1991 ­ March 1992). NILU; 1992.
  90. Sivulka DJ. Assessment of respiratory carcinogenicity associated with exposure to metallic nickel: a review. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2005; 43: 117­-33.
  91. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological profile for Nickel. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2005.
  92. Kasprzak KS, Sunderman FW, Jr., Salnikow K. Nickel carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 2003; 533: 67­-97.
  93. Rice TM, Clarke RW, Godleski JJ, Al­-Mutairi E, Jiang NF, Hauser R et al. Differential ability of transition metals to induce pulmonary inflammation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2001; 177: 46­-53.
  94. Nishi K, Morimoto Y, Ogami A, Murakami M, Myojo T, Oyabu T et al. Expression of cytokine­-induced  neutrophil  chemoattractant  in  rat lungs by intratracheal instillation of nickel oxide nanoparticles. Inhal Toxicol 2009; 21: 1030-­9.
  95. Roberts JR, Young SH, Castranova V, Antonini JM. The soluble nickel component of residual oil fly ash alters pulmonary host defense in rats. Journal of Immunotoxicology 2009; 6: 49­-61.
  96. Lippmann M, Ito K, Hwang JS, Maciejczyk P, Chen LC. Cardiovascular effects of nickel in ambient air. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114: 1662-­9.
  97. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological profile for Zinc. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2005.
  98. Prasad AS. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Mol Med 2008; 14: 353­-7.
  99. Antonini JM, Taylor MD, Zimmer AT, Roberts JR. Pulmonary responses to welding fumes: role of metal constituents. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2004; 67: 233-­49.
  100. Kodavanti UP, Schladweiler MC, Gilmour PS, Wallenborn JG, Mandavilli BS, Ledbetter AD et  al. The role of particulate matter-­associated zinc in cardiac injury in rats. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116: 13­-20.
  101. Kuschner WG,  D’Alessandro  A, Wintermeyer SF, Wong H, Boushey HA, Blanc PD.   Pulmonary responses to purified zinc oxide fume. J Investig Med 1995; 43: 371­-8.
  102. Kuschner WG, D’Alessandro A, Wong H, Blanc PD. Early pulmonary cytokine responses to zinc oxide fume inhalation. Environ Res 1997; 75: 7­-11.
  103. Adamson IY,  Prieditis H, Hedgecock C,  Vincent R. Zinc is the toxic factor in the lung response to an atmospheric particulate sample. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2000; 166: 111­-9.
  104. Prieditis H, Adamson IY. Comparative pulmonary toxicity of various soluble metals found in urban particulate dusts. Exp Lung Res 2002; 28: 563-­76.
  105. Hope BK. A global biogeochemical budget for vanadium. Sci Total Environ 1994; 141: 1-­10.
  106. Poucheret P, Verma S, Grynpas MD, McNeill JH. Vanadium and diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem 1998; 188: 73-­80.
  107. Kucera J, Lener J, Mnukova J. Vanadium levels in urine and cystine levels in fingernails and hair of exposed and normal persons. Biol Trace Elem Res 1994; 43­45: 327-­34.
  108. Kiviluoto M, Pyy L, Pakarinen A. Serum and urinary vanadium of workers processing vanadium pentoxide. 1981a. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1981; 48: 251­-6.
  109. Ghio AJ, Silbajoris R, Carson JL, Samet JM. Biologic effects of oil fly ash. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110: 89-94.
  110. Sabbioni E, Pozzi G, Pintar A, Casella L, Garattini S. Cellular retention, cytotoxicity and morphological transformation by vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) in BALB/3T3 cell lines. Carcinogenesis 1991; 12: 47-­52.
  111. Chen F, Demers LM, Vallyathan V, Ding M, Lu Y, Castranova V et al. Vanadate induction of NF­kappaB involves IkappaB kinase beta and SAPK/ERK kinase 1 in macrophages. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 20307-­12.
  112. Huang C, Ding M, Li J, Leonard SS, Rojanasakul Y, Castranova V et al. Vanadium-­induced nuclear factor of activated T cells activation through hydrogen peroxide. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 22397.
  113. Fickl H, Theron AJ, Grimmer H, Oommen J, Ramafi GJ, Steel HC et al. Vanadium promotes hydroxyl radical formation by activated human neutrophils. Free Radic Biol Med 2006; 40: 146­-55.
  114. Ivancsits S, Pilger A, Diem E, Schaffer A, Rudiger HW. Vanadate induces DNA strand breaks in cultured human fibroblasts at doses relevant to occupational exposure. Mutat Res 2002; 519: 25-­35.
  115. Assem FL, Levy LS. A Review of Current Toxicological Concerns on Vanadium Pentoxide and Other Vanadium Compounds: Gaps in Knowledge and Directions for Future Research. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 2009; 12: 289-­306.
  116. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). Opinion of the scientific panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies on a request form the commission related to the tolerable upper intake level of vanadium. 2004, rapport EFSA J.33.
  117. Aragon MA, Ayala ME, Fortoul TI, Bizarro P, Altamirano-­Lozano M. Vanadium induced ultrastructural changes and apoptosis in male germ cells. Reprod Toxicol 2005; 20: 127­-34.